By Economic & Social Commission for Asia & the Pacific
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Additional info for Achieving the Health Millennium Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific: Policies and Actions Within Health Systems and Beyond (Asia-Pacific MDG Study Series)
A b Data do not include Japan. Data do not include Turkey. Even where health providers are available, negligence, incompetence or inadequate training may result in misdiagnosis or wrong prescription of treatment. The problem can be compounded by corrupt and illegal practices among health professionals. Deficiencies in the capacity of human resources are especially acute with regard to HIV/AIDS, NCDs and mental health. Many Asian countries suffer a severe shortfall in the number of specialized health professionals working in the field of HIV/AIDS.
They would, therefore, include the “people, institutions and resources, arranged together in accordance with established policies, to improve the health of the population they serve, while responding to people’s legitimate expectations and protecting them against the cost of ill-health through a variety of activities whose primary intent is to improve health” (WHO, 2000b). Economic development or improvements in other socio-economic conditions, such as education, water and sanitation infrastructure, are vital for improving health outcomes.
Where social health insurance exists it tends to cover formal-sector workers and their families. Services for the unemployed and poor in the informal economy are financed through general taxation. Resources are pooled into general accounts that fund health services for individuals on an as-needed basis regardless of whether the health system is financed predominantly through taxes or contributions the workers. An interesting exception to these traditional models is offered by Singapore. Singapore has a compulsory system of individual saving accounts from which the insured and his/her family can withdraw money to pay for medical services (Barr, 2001).
Achieving the Health Millennium Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific: Policies and Actions Within Health Systems and Beyond (Asia-Pacific MDG Study Series) by Economic & Social Commission for Asia & the Pacific