By Kohki Takatoh
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Extra info for Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices
35. In case of the 90 twist configuration, the LC molecules in the middle of the cell align in between the top and bottom rubbing directions. However, the surfaces of the spacer beads tend to align the LC molecules perpendicular to the bead surfaces. When the electric field is applied to the LC cell, it aligns the LC molecules including those at the surfaces of the beads parallel to it. By the effect of the pretilt angle of the LC molecules on the glass substrates, the disclination lines then extend asymmetrically to the rubbing direction.
17 Molecular orientation of the rubbed film in the azimuthal angle direction (a) and in the polar direction (b). Reproduction by permission from . ] Fig. 18 Relation between the pretilt angle of the LC and the inclination angle of the polyimide backbone structure. Reproduction by permission from . ] 95 90 85 80 75 70 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Number of carbon atoms in alkyl side chain Fig. 19 The contact angle of water on An-PI and PMDA-ODA films. The horizontal axis is the number (n) of carbon atoms in the alkyl side chain.
Therefore, the injection hole has a higher risk of being not only the locus of flaws, but also the source of impurities that may be present in the photocurable resin. 3 Defects around spacer beads Spacer beads are sprayed on the substrate to make the cell gap uniform, and they can cause alignment defects in the LC because of their surface alignment strength and movement. Recently, the density of spacer beads has tended to increase in order to produce lightweight panels with thinner glass substrates, Rubbing Technologies: Mechanisms and Applications 41 and also for more precise cell gap control for several electrically controlled birefringence (ECB) display modes, such as the vertical alignment (VA) mode and the in-plane switching (IPS) mode.
Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices by Kohki Takatoh